Watch the other films from The Baby Loss Series.
Having one miscarriage can be devastating enough, but having one after another is often a very traumatic experience. The very thought of trying again can feel like an uphill struggle, with many couples already expecting another loss before the pregnancy has begun. Any future pregnancies will be full of hope but also tinged with a high level of anxiety. Investigations into a possible reason for recurrent miscarriage is advisable after the third recurrent miscarriage.
There are many possible causes for recurrent miscarriage, including: genetic and hormonal problems; infection and thrombophilic (blood-clotting) defects; uterine problems and cervical weakness. Unfortunately, even after investigation, it’s not always possible for doctors to identify the cause for recurrent miscarriage. However, most couples who have had recurrent miscarriage have a good chance of having a baby in the future.
Where possible, couples should be referred to a specialist unit dedicated to managing recurrent miscarriage.Often good supportive antenatal care in these circumstances makes a big difference; there is some evidence that attending an early pregnancy unit can reduce the risk of further miscarriages.
Causes of recurrent miscarriage
- Genetic: In a small number of cases, one partner may repeatedly pass on an abnormal chromosome, causing recurrent miscarriage.Both you and your partner should be offered a blood test to check for chromosomal abnormalities (known as karyotyping). If the tests show a problem, you should be referred to a clinical geneticist for further testing.
- Hormonal: In some rare cases an imbalance in pregnancy hormones can lead to conditions such as polycystic ovaries, multiple cysts on a woman’s ovaries caused by high levels of LH (luteinising hormone) and testosterone, which can cause miscarriage. Healthcare professionals can discuss the pros and cons of medical treatment for this.
- Blood clotting disorders: Some blood clotting disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can cause ‘sticky blood’ and recurrent miscarriage. These rare disorders of the immune system affect the flow of blood to the placenta and may cause clots that prevent the placenta from functioning properly, depriving the baby of essential oxygen and nutrients, which may lead to miscarriage. Treatment may involve taking aspirin and/or heparin therapy, which both help to thin the blood (research shows that in women who have recurrent miscarriage, their blood has an increased tendency to clot, blocking the flow of nutrients to the baby).
- Uterine problems: An abnormally shaped womb can increase your risk of recurrent miscarriage and premature birth. There are a number of ways to investigate the shape of the uterus and depending on the findings, surgery may be recommended.
- Cervical weakness: If you are considered at risk of cervical incompetence or cervical weakness, you may be offered a scan or be advised to have stitch or cervical cerclage early in the pregnancy.
Plan of care after recurrent miscarriages
Following recurrent miscarriages, you will usually be offered certain blood tests and a scan to try to identify the problem. Where possible, you will be referred to a specialist unit dedicated to managing recurrent miscarriage. Often, good supportive antenatal care in these circumstances makes a big difference; there is some evidence that attending an early pregnancy unit can reduce the risk of further miscarriages.
Blood tests: Blood tests may be used to check for complications, such as blood clotting disorders; polycystic ovaries and high levels of certain antibodies that can interfere with the pregnancy by affecting the placental blood supply or causing abnormal placental attachment in the womb.
Uterine investigations: An abnormally shaped womb can increase your risk of recurrent miscarriage and premature birth. There are a number of ways to investigate the shape of the uterus and depending on the findings, surgery may be recommended.
Knowing what and what not to say to people after the loss of a baby can be difficult. We have come up with a list to help you better comfort a bereaved loved one.
If you lose your baby after the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, but before 24 weeks, this is known as a late miscarriage.
Miscarriage is by far the biggest cause of pregnancy loss in the UK, and it’s also the least understood.
The most difficult part is having my pregnant friends around and watching them grow.
Every time I stepped foot in the Rainbow Clinic for an appointment I was uneasy only because I didn’t know what they would find but they understood this.
I have always been someone who believes in everything happens for a reason but when something happens THRICE I can only try to be positive.
- RCOG (2011) The Investigation and treatment of couples with Recurrent First-Trimester and Second Trimester Miscarriage. Green Top Guideline No 17, London Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
ℹLast reviewed on August 1st, 2016. Next review date August 1st, 2019.
By Susan (not verified) on 7 Dec 2018 - 19:26
I have had 5 miscarriages in the last 2.5 yrs after a healthy birth in ‘13. I’ve been tested for blood clotting disorders, chromosome issues,
By Midwife @Tommys on 10 Dec 2018 - 16:36
Hi Susan. If you would like to be referred to one of our miscarriage clinics please ask your doctor to refer you or call us on 0800 0147 800
By Steph (not verified) on 12 Oct 2018 - 14:47
Any advice will go miles for me.
I'm 36 years old and this week I have just experienced my second miscarriage- it was early on in the pregnancy but Im struggling.
My last miscarriage was January 2016 and was a missed miscarriage, I was 10 weeks but in fact showing 7 weeks with no heart beat. Me and my partner haven't got any children and we are desperate to start our own family. I had a scan at the hospital last month and was told I had 7 follicles on one ovary and 3 on the other- so total of 10 & the nurse told me that was a good sign. I'm also regular and I do ovulate - I think, We will try again but the anxiety is real. I'm over come with fear mixed in with shame and embarrassment.
Good luck everyone x
By Midwife @Tommys on 15 Oct 2018 - 16:20
You have nothing to be ashamed or embarrassed about. There are lots of couples who are not able to conceive and there is no blame attached to it at all. In the absence of more information about your particular circumstances I would recommend that you do the questionnaire #Areyouready . This has been designed to help you focus on any health areas which could be improved.
After 2 miscarriages, you have only a 22-29% chance of another miscarriage which means a 71-78% chance of a healthy pregnancy. I hope this will give you some hope to know that you have a good chance of a normal and healthy pregnancy in the future.
By Sarah (not verified) on 15 Oct 2018 - 18:19
Would like some advice on who I can talk with i have had 6 miscarriages in the last 3 years .
By Midwife @Tommys on 17 Oct 2018 - 16:29
You can call us on the midwife team on 0800 0147800, Mon to Fri, 9 am to 5pm. I am sorry to hear that you have been through such a lot.
I hope to hear from you very soon
By Francesca (not verified) on 8 Nov 2018 - 22:37
I am so sorry for your loss. I understand what you are going through. I found out on the 4th October this year my baby’s heart had stopped beating. I also had a miscarriage in January. I have been trying for sometime and also have no children. The past month has been really difficult.
It is positive that you have 10 follicles. Fingers crossed for you. You deserve a happy outcome
By Angie (not verified) on 9 Sep 2018 - 14:55
I have had two miscarriages this year , one at just under 10 weeks in April & one at 7.5 weeks in August . I have now been referred to the recurrent miscarriage clinic , one of my local centres accepts women over 35 who have had two consecutive miscarriages, but the waiting is agonizing . As a nurse I know how slowly the NHS works with referrals . I'm concerned I'm likely to get pregnant again in the interim (we have managed to get pregnant first attempt both times)& then be back in no mans land as I won't have started any testing & the same thing will just repeat itself.
I don't feel like I have months to waste waiting for testing as I'm now 40. I've been considering going private for investigations but it's so expensive..plus I don't want to have unnecessary expensive testing undertaken.
Just feel stuck :-(
By Midwife @Tommys on 12 Sep 2018 - 12:32
Thank you for your message. I'm sorry to hear about your 2 miscarriages and can only imagine what you are feeling. It must be so frustrating not knowing when you are going to be seen by the clinic. You may be able to contact them to try and find out when your appointment is likely to be scheduled.
You may be aware that Tommy's funds Miscarriage research-there are 3 recurrent miscarriage clinics in the Midlands and London that you may wish to access-you will need a GP referral.
I have attached a link with more information for you-however they generally only accept referrals if you have had more than 3 miscarriages unless you live in the Coventry area-
Please do not hesitate to contact us on Tommy's PregnancyLine 0800 0147 800 or email [email protected] for more information and support
By Rosie (not verified) on 2 Oct 2018 - 00:14
I had 3 miscarriages in a row and was then referred to have some tests run. In the interim I did fall pregnant and I was upset as I was certain it would end the same way and I would have to wait even longer to be referred. My daughter is now two. I know it’s hard to be positive but I wish I hadn’t had that initial sadness over falling pregnant as I feel guilty about it now. Also on the recommendation of a friend who has had 6 miscarriages I began to take Baby aspirin when I fell pregnant. I’ll never know if that did help or it was a coincidence but may be worth speaking about with your midwife if you do fall pregnant again. Good luck and I hope you get your beautiful baby soon x
By Kay (not verified) on 21 Aug 2018 - 18:25
How likely is extreme stress to cause early and late miscarriages/preterm labour?
One example, my daughter was born at 21w3day exactly one week after an extremely stressful event.
Another, saw a heartbeat at 6w3d but the following week scan, it had stopped the very same day at 6w3d that another very stressful event cropped up.
By Midwife @Tommys on 22 Aug 2018 - 11:37
There is no proven direct/obvious correlation between stressful events and miscarriage. But i can understand why you are concerned that these events occurred and its natural to want to find answers.
If you are considering trying to conceive again and want to talk any of this through in detail, please feel free to call us on 0800 0147800. We are here Mon to Fri 9 am to 5pm.
Please take care and perhaps we will hear from you soon.
All the best
By Dee (not verified) on 31 Jul 2018 - 04:37
I have 2 sons 15 23 I have had 2 ectopic pregnancies...1 still birth.... and 15 misscarriges... my friends think I'm crazy they are all spaced out in my life .... I get pregnant easy but my body just gets 9 /12 wks and gives up ... I got told I had endometriosis.... but still got pregnant put on asprin hormones but still lost my pregnancies its hart breaking.... now 41 goin for full historecomy... as I'm just hurt by all the loss no1 can help or tell me let's try this had 2 laparoscopy and said endo ... but I am lucky I have 2 boys but with my partner and would love a child... can any1 offer help or doctors or somthing.... it's just hart breaking... @[email protected] wish all of u luck x
By Midwife @Tommys on 31 Jul 2018 - 16:08
I am sorry to hear all that you have been through. I know that none of it would have been easy!
I think that it might be best if you call us on the helpline for a chat when it suits you (we are here Mon to Fri 9am to 5pm)on 0800 0147800. Then we can chat through your concerns and experiences and try to find a way to help you. In addition to our helpline, you can email us directly (and privately rather than here on a public page ) our email is [email protected]
I look forward to hearing from you.
By Gw (not verified) on 10 Apr 2018 - 02:03
I am 37 years old and after reading all your stories do not feel alone on this journey any longer.
My husband and I have had 4 misscarriage and a failed PGD round. Innitially after 3 recurrent misscarriages we confirmed that my husband had a balanced translocation, reason why we were reffered to the PGD programme, however i did not respond as expected to the treatment and did not produce as many eggs as expected, so it was not suscessful.
A month later we were about to give up and a failed pregnant again and suffered a misscarriage, an other devastating experience.
The rare part is, we get pregnant very easily... but I am starting to think that there is something else apart from the translocation of my husband, we had the exams they do at st Marys... and i was prescribed aspirin and heparin... but i dont get to really use them before i suffer the misscarriage.
I was told to continue trying naturally that I would have more options than pgd this way, that a woman's body was resilient... but I wonder... is there is something else we havent looked at, I could almost swear I am pregnant right now, and frankly I am more scared than excited.
My last experience, i tested positive twice after 2 wks late... started bleeding and heavy pain, went to ER to be told my blood and urine test was negative... I felt embarassed, i felt irrelevant and stupid, the doctor made me feel like i made the whole thing up and that I was going crazy... that was the worst part of it, i know my body and everything was different about that period i cant explain how my hcg tested possitive 3 days before (twice) and then 1...
i know, and i felt it was a misscarriage, an early one, but it was a misscarriage, it was different in every sense to my normal period.
My husband and I dont know what else to do... or what other tests to make, the tissues have never been tested as I always misscarriage naturally.
I feel each time i lose a bit of my soul
Thank you for the space
By Midwife @Tommys on 10 Apr 2018 - 16:38
I am so sorry to hear about all you and your Husband have gone through, that is incredibly difficult. I really hope that you have both had plenty of support and counselling offered to you if you felt that this would be good for you.
Since you are under the specialist team at St Mary's, they would certainly be the ones best placed to make any decisions about your care, in terms of trying other medication or treatment options. Your obstetric/gynecology consultant would be more than happy to discuss if there are any more options for you.
Also ,please know that you can call us on the pregnancyline mon to fri 9 am to 5pm on 0800 0147800 if you wish to have a friendly chat, but we don't have the specialty knowledge like the consultant does to be able to discuss further testing options as it's a little outside of our remit. But we are always happy to help in any way that we can!
Thank you so much for sharing your story too!
All the best
By Holly Burnley (not verified) on 3 Apr 2018 - 06:52
I'm not too sure I'm in the right place but I'm 26 so is my partner ! We've been trying to conceive for 5 years we've been through 2 rounds of ivf one of which resulted in a missed miscarriage at 6 weeks one day the other just didn't work at all. Then by some miracle I managed to conceive on my own but I've miscarried naturally at 6 weeks 5 days. I'm stuck as to what to do next don't really feel like I have anyone to ask. If we pay for ivf again I feel like it would get me no further as we are just going round in circles plus the emotional stress this causes is beginning to be too much. Thankyou holly
By Midwife @Tommys on 6 Apr 2018 - 10:27
I am sorry to hear what such a challenging and difficult time you are going through. We are more than happy to support you best we can, please feel free to email us [email protected], or give us a call on 0800 0147 800. We are available Monday to Friday 9-5pm, and can talk through what you are going through at the moment and support you in your decisions moving forward. Best wishes, Tommy's midwives x
By MJ (not verified) on 29 Mar 2018 - 19:12
I have just had a "chemical pregnancy", with a week of positive darkening tests, followed by fainter ones and a delayed period. Previous to this I had a miscarriage at 6 weeks, these are my only two "pregnancies". I just wondered, do I count the chemical as a miscarriage? As I know once/if I get to three miscarriages I can be referred.
By Midwife @Tommys on 3 Apr 2018 - 10:56
Thanks for getting in touch. I am sorry to hear what you have been through. If you need to chat, you can call us on the pregnacyline on 0800 0147800 or email us on [email protected]
Yes, your chemical pregnancy will count as a pregnancy loss. If you need any further support, please do get in touch!
By Emma (not verified) on 12 Mar 2018 - 21:05
Hi there. I have just suffered my 5th consecutive miscarriage in just under 2 years. I am 37 years old and myself and my husband have no children of our own or with other people.
My NHS testing came back without showing any cause of our losses. They have all happened between 5 and 9 weeks. I am starting to believe it may be due to NK cells or another type of immune response. Feeling like I don't know what is next as I realise your chances of a successful pregnancy decrease drastically after 5 miscarriages. Trying to remain positive but wondering at which point to decide enough is enough....
By Midwife @Tommys on 15 Mar 2018 - 12:00
Hi Emma, Thank you for your comment.
We are so sorry to hear about all your losses, we cannot begin to imagine how you must be feeling at this time. If you could email the Tommy's midwives directly, then we can give you further information about our recurrent miscarriage clinics around the UK, you fit the criteria for a referral and if you are willing to travel then we can give you the information about speaking to your GP about a referral if you think this would be an option for you? please email on [email protected]
It is good to remain positive as we can help you get a referral for the next step of your journey. Looking forward to hearing from you, best wishes, Tommy's Midwives x
By Midwife @Tommys on 23 Jan 2018 - 13:00
Thank you for posting. I am incredibly sad to hear of your eighth miscarriage in 3 years I cannot imagine how you and your partner are coping and surviving. I know you must be keenly aware and worried about your age and you asked about whether all research and trials were undertaken on women under the age of 42.
I have looked at the criteria at each Tommy's Research Centre and the only centre that excludes women on age is St Mary's in London. Otherwise if women have suffered from recurrent miscarriage they can be referred to the other centres. I have included the link below.
With love and thinking of you both
By Mrs 42 (not verified) on 22 Jan 2018 - 23:42
Myself and my husband have unfortunately had 3 miscarriages between 9 - 12 weeks(with heartbeats) and 5 miscarriages between 4-6 weeks... All in the last 3 years.
We are under the care of our local recurrent miscarriage clinic but I think a combination of NHS plural my age (42) have meant that my options are limited.
We have had all of the NHS tests but they came back normal so we have unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Our latest loss was on boxing day. I'm beginning to feel like it's hopeless.
My question is, does all research and trials take place on ladies under 42? I know fertility drops off dramatically but getting pregnant is not the problem. It's staying that way.
Sending hugs to all of you who have posted. It's a horrible, sad and lonely thing. It's vital that we do share what's happening so that others can understand that some people live with a horrible invisible grief. X
By Sue (not verified) on 15 Feb 2018 - 11:25
I know exactly how you feel, I’m 44, I suffered one misscarriage, then went on to have a healthy pregnancy... then followed by 4 misscarriages.. going to ask if they will test us to see if there is an underlying problem
By Midwife @Tommys on 15 Feb 2018 - 12:57
Hi Thank you for sharing your comment.
We are so sorry to hear about your miscarriages, this must be a very challenging time for you and your family. We would recommend that you see your GP who may be able to refer you to a recurrent miscarriage clinic and they can test to see if there is a cause as to why this is happening.
If you need any help, advice or support then please contact the Tommy's midwives on 0800 0147 800 9am-5pm or please email us on [email protected] We are always here if you need anything and can give your further advice if you need it. Take Care, Tommy's Midwives x
By spyloadedng (not verified) on 30 Dec 2017 - 07:09
thanks for this topic
By Vicki Coe (not verified) on 18 Dec 2017 - 16:40
Hi, I m 42 and had my 4th Miscarriage in September this year. The first was in 2001. I had one last year and two this year!
I have just come home from the recurrent miscarriage clinic at the London hospital.
I had to have blood tests today and need to go back in March.
The doctor I saw said he is sending me for another scan, I have to wait for letter with appointment.
I have Fibroids and they need to determine what kind of Fibroids I have.
Me and my partner would really like a baby of our own. We both have children with exes.
I am really scared about falling pregnant again as we would be devastated if we lost another baby.
What are the chances of having another miscarriage no one knows.
By Midwife @Tommys on 20 Dec 2017 - 10:15
Thank you for your comment. I am sorry for what you and your partner are going through. You are under a specialist team now and i am sure that they will continue to do all they can for you.
Please feel free to contact us on our helpline to discuss further.
0800 0147 800
By Yasmin (not verified) on 27 Nov 2017 - 20:38
Hi my daughter just went on her 3rd miss we were devastated but waiting on blood results to confirm ad me being rhnegative mom des a chance ky dauter is also ad may need a dose of anti rhogam so fingers cross if it's to do wid blood group or wat so u all hang in der leave no stones in turned investigate wez da problems ar before trying to conceive lots if information on internet I learnt a lot from here plz go chek ad good luck to all ad god bless
By Midwife @Tommys on 28 Nov 2017 - 15:15
Thank you for your comment. I am so sorry to hear about your daughter having 3 miscarriages. She may wish to be referred to her local Recurrent Miscarriage unit for more tests to find out why she has had so many -checking her blood group to see if she has any unusual antibodies will be one of these tests.
I have attached 2 links with more information that you and your daughter may find helpful
By Shabby (not verified) on 19 Jan 2017 - 19:52
Myself and my beautiful wife, besides to start a family shortly after we got married (Aug 15)
As we are in a same-sex relationship, we decided to go for IUI treatment, less intrusive and a slight more natural process.. If you can call it that?!
After blood tests, scans and counselling we were ready to start the process. In April 2016, we headed abroad for our first treatment. We have the treatment and hated every minute of the 2 week wait.
Finally, 2 weeks were over and we tested ........... pregnant! Wow who would have thought it, no medication, a fancy turkey baster technique. 5 weeks along, everything was going so well, amazingly actually!
A week later, everything went from amazing to devistating! We lost the pregnancy very early. "Do worry, it is a one off" they told us. Happens to 1 in 4.
Advised to wait and saving pennies, we aheaded off again to have our second insemination- again the dreaded 2 week wait. Finally the day arrived, we tested, yet again pregnant!
Fast forward- 10 weeks my wife had been bleeding, we were told "it's normal" we knew it wasn't. We have an early scan and saw a heartbeat, wow! Supposedly, I had seen, once there is a heartbeat and risk of mc is reduced. After begging for a scan at 10 week , we see clearly, our pregnancy was no long viable.
My wife planned to have the fetous removed sergically, but that night the heavy bleeding began and so did my heart.
We headed off two months later, again, without a medical cycle, again another two weeks, but this time something unexpected happened- we got a neg result- what a kick in the teeth we wasn't successful, we didn't get over the first hurdle!
The following month, we jumped on the plan and this was our last shot, with everything crossed, we undertook the last treatment. My this time, we are £10k down and nothing to show for it.
We enjoyed the city while we were there and tried our best to relax. The two week wait wasn't so bad at all. I had a lot going on. My fathering-in-laws 60th, my grandmother in hospital and my wife already knew she was pregnant, very early on. We didn't need to test.
Then the dreaded blood make an appearance- it wasn't fresh, which is a look sign, so we have been told. Two days later we have a scan "a strong heartbeat" the sonographer said. "Stop worrying, blood isn't always a bad sign" well in our case blood, whatever it's colour, Is not good news!
Sadly my wife had another missed miscarriage and it due to have surgical intervention, the same day I am burying my grandmother.
This have been emotional tourcher and I don't feel I am able to support my beautiful wife the way I should.
By Midwife @Tommys on 20 Jan 2017 - 10:25
I am so sorry to hear about the journey you and your wife are going through and the miscarriages you have been through. For you to write your story shows such courage, I cannot being to imagine what you are going through. Please know that we are here to support to you both. If you would like a chat or a listening ear, here we have a phone line 0800 0147 800 and email [email protected] It is confidential, Monday to Friday 9-5pm service x
By Anonymous (not verified) on 20 Jun 2016 - 21:00
I also too have 1 tube left after an ectopic. I have a son who is 5 so I know I can carry. I have recently had my 5th miscarriage and everytime there is a different issue... Had all the blood tests and biopsy done on me to find nothing wrong. The only thing I have not yet tried is the NK killer cells test which I will have to pay for privately.. £350!! Fingers crossed for both of us. I'm 36 and not getting any younger. I'm
Determined not to give up. Good luck honey x
By Anonymous (not verified) on 18 Jun 2016 - 00:50
I have had 10 miscarriages and one ectopic pregnancy that ended in me losing my right fallopian tube after that followed a million different blood test and a patentce test we find out that after all those test and my husband had genetic blood test done to they say they dont know why this keeps happening so some times u never find out why but the trick is to keep faith that when its supposed to happen it will my left side is patent and after all that loss and believe me ladies it never gets better but i will still get out of bed everyday and get dressed and go on with my life and have faith that it will happen someday it had always been taboo to talk about miscarriage but im here to say all my babies matter and we need to speak out woman need support especially with something like this there was times i wanted to just die and get it over with im no longer at that point but i still have my good and bad days my whole point is that if u have had a miscarriage or multiple plz dont let it eat u inside speak out and speak up vent get it out do not hold all that hurt in it can be very hard to even feel like u can talk about it because some ppl may make u feel like theres something wrong with u but theres not most of the time im not saying theres never a reason for recurring miscarriage but as in my case theres no reason they can find so just keep the faith and stay strong .......wow that was a novel lol
By Anonymous (not verified) on 29 Jun 2017 - 01:53
Me too been through the same situation it's very hard ,but we have to stand strong and knock on Dcs doors till a right oneopens for us,
By Midwife @Tommys on 29 Jun 2017 - 14:51
Hi Thank you for sharing your comment. If you need any help, advice or support then please contact the Tommy's midwives on 0800 0147 800 9am-5pm or please email us on [email protected] We are always here if you need anything and look forward to hearing from you. Best Wishes Tommy's Midwives x