A miscarriage is the loss of a pregnancy during the first 23 weeks. The main sign of a miscarriage is vaginal bleeding. This may be followed by cramping and pain in the lower abdomen.An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that develops in the fallopian tubes instead of in the womb. Sometimes an ectopic pregnancy can also develop in the abdominal cavity. An ectopic pregnancy is a serious, life-threatening condition and will end in miscarriage.
- Among women who know they are pregnant, 1 in 6 pregnancies ends in miscarriage.
- 1 in 90 pregnancies in the UK are ectopic.
- The overall risk of miscarriage under 12 weeks in known pregnancies is 1 in 5. In women with a BMI over 30, the risk is 1 in 4.
- Up to 75% of miscarriages happen in the first trimester.
- About 1 in 100 women in the UK experience recurrent miscarriages.
- A UK-based study of 1,700 women reported that obese (BMI of 30-39.9) women had a significantly higher incidence of early and recurrent early miscarriages compared with age-matched women of normal normal weight in a control group. The researchers concluded that obesity is associated with increased risk of first-trimester and recurrent miscarriage.
 NHS Choices. Miscarriage. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/miscarriage/Pages/Introduction.aspx (accessed 2 February 2016).
 NHS Choices. Ectopic pregnancy. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Ectopic-pregnancy/Pages/Introduction.aspx (accessed 2 February 2016).
 NHS Choices. Overweight and pregnant. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/pages/overweight-pregnant.aspx (accessed 2 February 2016).
 About Health. What do miscarriage statistics really mean? Available at: http://miscarriage.about.com/od/riskfactors/a/miscarriage-statistics.htm (accessed 2 February 2016).
 NHS Choices. Miscarriage: causes. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Miscarriage/Pages/Causes.aspx (accessed 2 February 2016).
 Lashen H, Fear K, Sturdee DW. Obesity is associated with increased risk of first trimester and recurrent miscarriage: matched case–control study. Human Reproduction 2004;19(7):1644–6.
 Rai R, Regan L. Recurrent miscarriage. Lancet 2006;368(9535):601–11.Hide details
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