Male fertility

It takes two to make a baby. We’ve put together some useful tips for making super sperm and giving you the best chance of making a healthy baby.

Men produce sperm in their testes. It takes 90 days for sperm to be ready for their eventual journey.

Of the 2-4 million sperm that arrive in the vagina during sexual intercourse, over 99 percent are immediately lost by leakage from the vagina. Sperm can live inside a woman’s body for an average of two to three days, and potentially up to seven days.

How to produce good quality sperm

For optimum production of sperm, the testes need to be kept cooler than the rest of the body. Men should avoid wearing tight-fitting underwear, trousers or shorts, as they can significantly reduce the quality of sperm produced. They force the testes to be kept too close to the body and air cannot circulate around to cool them off.

Research has also shown that men who sit down for a long time, such as taxi drivers, or men whose testicles are exposed to excess heat, from a laptop for example, have a lower quality of sperm and a lower sperm count.

Other factors such as diet, excessive alcohol, smoking, drugs, cycling and intensive exercise can also affect sperm production.

The size of a man’s penis does not make any difference to his ability to make a woman pregnant.

Top tips for increasing male fertility

  • Cut down on your alcohol intake.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Wear baggy trousers and loose underwear.
  • Avoid taking hot showers and sitting in hot baths.
  • Avoid saunas, Jacuzzis or sitting with a laptop on your lap.
  • Don’t cycle or sit down for long periods.
  • Eat five portions a day of fruit and vegetables.
  • Exercise for at least 20-30 minutes three times a week.
  • Avoid getting worked up – stress can have an effect on conception.

When to seek help with fertility

It can be difficult to know how long to wait before you see a doctor about your fertility.

It usually takes several months to conceive so if you’ve been trying for a baby for about a year (or 6 months if your partner is 35 or over) without success then it’s probably a good time to see your GP, either with your partner or separately.

If you find that either of you are becoming stressed because you haven’t conceived yet, then make an appointment sooner.

Worrying about conceiving is perfectly normal, but getting stressed may hinder your chances.



  1. Macdonald S, Magil-Cuerden J (2012) Mayes’ midwifery, 14th edition, London Balliere Tindall
  2. NICE (2013) Fertility: assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems, Clinical guideline 156, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, London NICE, 2013
  3. BMA (2013) Male factor infertility, London BMA, 2013, British Medical Journal Best PracticE (accessed 24 March 2014)
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Last reviewed on June 13th, 2017. Next review date June 13th, 2020.

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