Waters breaking early (PPROM)

If your waters break early, seek medical advice straight away as you could be at risk of premature labour.

PPROM infographic

Your unborn baby lies in an amniotic sac of fluid or ‘waters’. ‘Waters breaking’ means that the sac has ruptured or broken. Your waters normally break around the time labour is due but in around 2% of pregnancies they break early for various reasons (see below).

If your waters break before your baby has reached full term (37 weeks), the medical name for it is preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes, or PPROM. If this happens early, before the contractions start, it can (but does not always) trigger early labour.

This page deals with waters breaking early before 37 weeks. Read here about what to expect when your waters break AFTER 37 weeks.

Have my waters broken early (PPROM)?

If your waters have broken early, you will experience it as a trickle or a gush of water from your vagina. It is likely to continue leaking once it has started If it isn't too heavy you can use a sanitary towel to catch it. This will also allow you to see what colour it is, which will be helpful information for health professionals. It may be pinkish if it contains some blood, or it may be clear. If it greenish or brown go to the maternity unit as soon as possible. If it is heavy, you may need to use a towel.

Phone your maternity unit immediately for advice.

What are the risks if my waters break early (PPROM)?

If your waters break early the risks and treatment are dependent on the stage of pregnancy you are at.

  • You are at risk of going into labour prematurely – the health risks for the baby of early birth are greater the younger they are.
  • If you do not go into labour, you and the baby are at risk of infection.

The doctors have to balance these two considerations. If the waters have broken because of infection, you and the baby have a high risk of getting the infection and you may need to deliver sooner to prevent this.

If the waters have broken but there is no infection currently present, you and the baby are still at risk but the immediate risk is lesser and your treatment will depend on your stage of pregnancy.

If you are under 24 weeks of pregnancy and the baby is born, sadly, it is unlikely the baby will survive.

If you are over 30 weeks and the baby is born, the likelihood of your baby surviving is much higher - over 95%

What will happen if my waters break early (PPROM)?

You are likely to have an internal examination. This will allow the doctor to look at your cervix and check:

  • if the leaking fluid is amniotic fluid
  • if it is changing in preparation for labour
  • to check for infection by taking a swab.

You might have an ultrasound scan to estimate the amount of fluid left around your baby.

If only a very small amount of amniotic fluid leaks, it is not always easy to be sure whether your waters have broken.

  • You may be advised to wear a pad and stay in hospital for a few hours to monitor the situation.
  • If you go home but continue to leak fluid at home, you should return to the hospital again.

If your waters are shown to have broken, you will be advised to come into hospital for at least 48 hours. You and your unborn baby will be closely monitored for signs of infection. This will include having your temperature and pulse taken regularly, and your baby’s heart rate will also be monitored.

Going home from hospital with PPROM

If there is no infection present you may be able to go home. You will be at risk from infection however, and you will need to self-monitor by

  • checking that your temperature is normal (37 °C or less) every 4–8 hours
  • checking the colour of the fluid does not change by wearing a pad.

You should avoid having sexual intercourse.

Contact your doctor or midwife and return to the hospital immediately if you have:

  • a raised temperature (more than 37 °C)
  • flu-like symptoms (feeling hot and shivery)
  • vaginal bleeding
  • if the leaking fluid becomes greenish or smelly
  • contractions
  • abdominal pain
  • if you are worried that the baby is not moving as normal.

Inducing labour or premature labour with PPROM

If you are past 34 weeks the doctor will weigh up the benefits of inducing labour before the due date to avoid the risk of infection with the disadvantages of being born premature, and may make a recommendation for early delivery.

You may need to stay in a hospital that has a neonatal unit and be monitored carefully for any sign of infection. You may also be treated with antibiotics, corticosteroids and magnesium sulphate (if you are less than 30 weeks) to help prepare your baby in case the are born prematurely.

Over 80% of women who have PPROM deliver their baby within seven days of their waters breaking.

What if there are no waters left in my womb?

Your baby’s amniotic sac has to have the right amount of amniotic fluid for the pregnancy to continue normally. If there is a break in the waters your baby will continue to produce amniotic fluid.

Before 23 weeks, the baby needs ‘waters’ to be present for their lungs to develop normally. Loss of water before this can lead to severe problems with lung development that can be critical after birth. After 23 weeks your baby does not need the amniotic fluid so much, so low levels of fluid may not be a problem in itself, but if the low levels are due to your waters breaking then there is a risk of infection.

Read more about intrauterine infection and chorioamnionitis

Causes of waters breaking early (PPROM)

Intrauterine infection is present in around a third of women with PPROM. In many cases however it happens without any infection being present. The reason for these cases is unclear, however it has been linked to heavy smoking (more than 10 cigarettes a day) in pregnancy

Read more

  • Discharge in pregnancy

    Discharge in pregnancy

    Having more vaginal discharge during pregnancy is common, but speak to your midwife or doctor if you are unsure about any increase or change in your vaginal discharge.

Sources

  1. RCOG (2012) Information for you When your waters break early, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
  2. J David, Steer P et al (2010) High risk pregnancy, management options, Elsevier Saunders
  3. RCOG (2006) Preterm Prelabour Rupture of Membranes, Greentop guideline 44, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
  4. England MC, Benjamin A, Abenhaim HA (2013) Increased Risk of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes at Early Gestational Ages among Maternal Cigarette Smokers. Am J Perinatol. 2013 Jan 17 
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Last reviewed on October 5th, 2016. Next review date October 5th, 2019.

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Comments

Please note that these comments are monitored but not answered by Tommy’s. Please call your GP or maternity unit if you have concerns about your health or your baby’s health.
  • By Fathima (not verified) on 11 Sep 2019 - 11:04

    Hi I am 21.and 5 days
    Weeks my water bag breaks At night around 1.30 am...
    I got a ultra sound from da doctor
    But he told me not to keep any expectation!!!but tha baby is moving!!!there Is a heart beat!!!
    But i was Ok!!!stopped leaking but again it gushes down in my pads!!
    I feel scary and nervous!!
    Please help!!

  • By Dominique (not verified) on 15 Sep 2019 - 09:57

    Im sp sorry to hear that but atay atrong they are people like you and me they said my babies are infected and would die and i knew it wasnt true i just felt in my gut and my swabs came clear ...i was ok 2 weeks later im 23 weeks almost there...the care increases when yoir 24 weeks because chances increases...

  • By T (not verified) on 11 Sep 2019 - 00:41

    My wife went to hospital she's 36 weeks, Friday she well be 37 week but now the water broke on Sunday, doctors what to induce labor which is stressing me out, please help

  • By Anonymous (not verified) on 23 Jul 2019 - 07:59

    lm already35weeks and my waters have broken what shouldl do

  • By Midwife @Tommys on 24 Jul 2019 - 09:40

    Please go to your local hospital. Once your waters have broken, you and your baby are at risk of infection.
    Tommy's Midwife

  • By Stormy (not verified) on 16 Jul 2019 - 17:19

    I have had 2 miscarriages my was 2011 I was 19 weeks and my water broke. My second one was in 2018 I was 22 weeks and my water broke. I have pcos and irregular periods. What are my chances of getting pregnant and it surviving?

  • By Anonymous (not verified) on 8 Jul 2019 - 05:30

    I was 17 week pregnant wen my water broke at night we went to hospital and they said since there is no fluid my baby wouldn’t be able to survive Nd they delivered baby but my baby’s heartbeat was there till last time I feel so guilty as if my child wanted to say that he wanted to live and I couldn’t help him I feel kind of I m responsible for not having him . It was my first child

  • By Anonymous (not verified) on 22 Aug 2019 - 12:00

    Did your baby survive? I'm on the same boat.

  • By Miskey (not verified) on 13 Sep 2019 - 03:13

    I sit here with my water broke at 21 weeks and I felt your message and I'm sorry for your loss.
    Please do not feel guilty. I know that Doctors can be very aggressive at this moment and are trying to prevent harm to the mom. They make it seem as if that's the only best option, so that is what one decides to do.
    The fact is that there are precautions and risks and making that decision prevented that. Sometimes things happen and we do not know why nor do we understand but we cannot and must not feel guilty when are put into such a difficult situation. God bless,

  • By Anonymous (not verified) on 13 Sep 2019 - 14:34

    I lost my baby girl at 17 weeks too, just Tuesday. It's the worst thing I've ever experienced, I can't stop crying. I was told that I have a leakage due to ruptured membrane, I was also bleeding but when the baby came the sac was still sealed but the fluid colour was brown she was very much still alive. She was my 1st baby too. I don't know how I'm going to get over this.

  • By sophia (not verified) on 13 Sep 2019 - 16:18

    The same thing has happened to me few weeks ago.this is the sixth pregnancy, but its the third one I have lost die to prom. My water broke at 19weeks but she stayed alive Until 20 weeks. Third time I have to go through this and its harder than ever. I still can't be give any answers as to why I keep loosing and now I'm scared to try again. Has anyone else experienced this much loss. Its heartbreaking.

  • By Melg (not verified) on 7 Jul 2019 - 20:50

    Omg I have read every1z comments I thought I was alone ...I just found out i am 17weeks pregnant and on my first scan my obs/gynae told me my water hard broken currently on bed rest and scan shows baby's heart best is strong but I have this fear ....out what's going to happen is my baby going to be ok

  • By Anonymous (not verified) on 22 Aug 2019 - 12:02

    Did your baby survive? I'm on the same boat

  • By Lynn haake (not verified) on 28 Aug 2019 - 07:51

    Just had cesarean at 6 months cuz of Pprom

  • By AB (not verified) on 5 Jul 2019 - 23:29

    I am pregnant with twins, I had my cervix open and was stitched back. This morning my water broke and it happen and the licking was from Baby A.Though she still have some fluid. What do I do to keep moving. Thanks

  • By Anonymous (not verified) on 5 Sep 2019 - 20:33

    Wat happened in the same boat

  • By AB (not verified) on 5 Jul 2019 - 23:03

    I am pregnant with twins, I had my cervix open and was stitched back. This morning my water broke and it happen and the licking was from Baby A.Though she still have some fluid and Baby B is still intact with the water. Right now am believing God for a supernatural protection over them until 37weeks.

  • By Hendrina (not verified) on 20 Jun 2019 - 21:49

    My water broke four day's ago. I'm now at 31 weeks. Im in the hospital for monitoring and receiving antibiotics, strictly bed rest and drinking more water. How are my baby survival chances because they will take him out at 34 weeks?. And any food recommended?

  • By Stefani (not verified) on 1 Jul 2019 - 18:30

    My water broke also at 30 weeks and I am here at the hospital till I reach 34 wks. If you don’t have no restrictions on your diet you can eat anything you want just void raw or uncooked meat/fish

  • By Kayla (not verified) on 30 Aug 2019 - 10:45

    I'm also in the same situation but my water broke when i was 27 weeks,now im at 28+
    I was given antibiotics for the past 8 days and now I was told to stop,now I'm really worried because I was told that the reason I'm being given antibiotics is to prevent infections,so now my question is 'Am I not gonna get them now as I'm no longer taking antibiotics'?

  • By Dc (not verified) on 13 Jun 2019 - 11:25

    I am on baby number 3, and pregnancy number 5. But I wanted to pray for you all and also give you some hope. My son who is now a healthy 7 yr old was my 2 Nd pregnancy after an early miscarriage with him my waters broke at 30 weeks no infection but mixed advise to induce after a scan it was also confirmed he was extremely small after advice from three different consultant s I decided to take the steroids and go home and rest! I saw a consultant weekly and had baby monitored every couple of days by midwife. I also took my temperature regularly and I naturally went into labour at 33 weeks he was 3lb when born and spent three weeks in neo natal because of the steroids he was born breathing and I got to hold him first because of weight and feeding issues we stayed in hospital till he got to 5 lb. Like I said he is now a healthy 7 year old and is one of the biggest in his class lol! My 3rd pregnancy was miscarriage at 14 weeks no reason just started to bleed. My 4 th pregnancy with my now 18 month old girl I went all the way no complications she was born on her due date but was a flat baby and developed sepsis but after 5 days in hospital came home and has had no complications since. My advice is to try not to worry get as much advice and asked lots of questions never be afraid to ask for a different opinion and somewhat trust that everyone wants the same thing a healthy mum and baby, good luck to you all P.S I must be crazy doing it all again currently 21 weeks with pregnancy number 5 hopefully baby number 3 !!!

  • By Zain (not verified) on 7 Jul 2019 - 18:18

    Had the PPROM my fast baby at six months and lost due to lungs failure.. My question is am already 4 weeks pg and it's now been the sixth month since I lost the other one.. Am scared pls can it happen again?

  • By Jessica (not verified) on 9 Jun 2019 - 17:44

    Hi, I had a gush if water with blood 5 days ago. Was told it was heavy discharge and urine and to go home. Something was telling me it wasn’t right. I demanded more tests and turned out my waters are breaking. We have a scan tomorrow to see how much fluid I have lost. I’m hoping to god that I can keep her in for as Long as possible. Am I being silly hoping for this ? Or have people had healthy babies with the same experience ?

  • By Ashley (not verified) on 30 Jun 2019 - 22:41

    Bed rest bed rest No heavy lifting.. I’m currently in the hospital trying to hold my little boy in at least another 5 weeks so he’s got a chance.. hang in their and rest. Praying for you.

  • By Kayla (not verified) on 30 Aug 2019 - 11:08

    Another 5 weeks?
    Does this mean u are going to give birth at 25 weeks?

  • By Christine Kerub... (not verified) on 5 Jun 2019 - 22:51

    My waters broke 3 days ago and I immediately rushed to hospital. They performed an ultrasound and luckily the baby was fine except for the low amount of amniotic fluid.They performed tests and found out I had a bacterial infection which was the cause of the rupture. I'm now on steroids and antibiotics in hospital bed rest for the next five weeks for my lil angel to turn 34 weeks and then they induce me. The fluid still gushing out but I'm taking 5 L of water daily to keep myself hydrated. No pains or crumping but the baby has minimal moments. They keep checking the baby heartbeat and my pulse, pressure,temperature and blood tests.Hoping for the best.

  • By Lelethu Matomela (not verified) on 6 Jun 2019 - 19:02

    Im on the same thing , i was admitted last week Tuesday when i had 28 weeks and now im on 29.

  • By Paige (not verified) on 18 Jun 2019 - 06:53

    My water broke 3 weeks ago and ive been in the hospital for 2 weeks now on bed rest waiting till we make it to 34 weeks or past. I am now at 25 weeks and 2 days!

  • By Tee (not verified) on 27 Jun 2019 - 11:58

    Yes me too my water broke on the 25th if June been in here for two full days now no dilating or contractions or pain no infections clear fluids im a diabetic.. I'll 25 weeks Sat.

  • By Yobana (not verified) on 18 Aug 2019 - 02:01

    So I am actually 28 weeks and my water broke can you give me any advice? I’m really scared and nervous because they said I am having cesarean birth

  • By Dee (not verified) on 31 May 2019 - 12:11

    I had PROM At 26 weeks 6 days today we are 27 weeks 5days and I am still heavily draining. Baby is at 1kg and they keep stopping contractions, we received the steroids a week ago and each day I hv been on antibiotics, I need to know if it is safe for them to allow baby to come at 30 weeks as I estimate I might be at 1.3 kg. Is there a chance baby can survive?

  • By Sc (not verified) on 1 Jun 2019 - 00:33

    Yes!!! Your baby could survive if born today. I’m now 25+3 and also ruptured and waiting. Drink a lot and stay in the hospital on bed rest. My friend just delivered a baby this week at 33 weeks whose water broke at 17 weeks and babe is good.

  • By Safisha Denika ... (not verified) on 11 Jun 2019 - 15:04

    Am having same problem as your friend but I haven’t leak any fluid and no one can tell me why my baby has so fluid around it or what’s the cause only thing the doctor is telling me is to terminate my pregnancy but my baby has a heart bet of 153

  • By Kerry (not verified) on 15 Jun 2019 - 13:10

    I am sixteen weeks. There is no fluid around my baby. The doctors want to terminate my baby but as long as it's heart is beating I will not do it. I will go on bed rest and drink a lot of water. I will trust in God to work a miracle. Be strong

  • By Lingling (not verified) on 27 Jun 2019 - 07:35

    I hope you and your baby are both fine now? My water broke at 16 weeks today, with discharge of blood too. In hospital ward Hoping for the best now.

  • By Sarah (not verified) on 5 Jul 2019 - 09:39

    This is so reassuring to read,I am 18 weeks and my waters broke two days ago, I'm praying my baby girls makes it, she still has a strong heart beat, water only coming out a tiny bit now.

  • By Jo (not verified) on 26 Jul 2019 - 12:06

    This one gives me so much hope

  • By Nomadouglas (not verified) on 14 Jun 2019 - 22:51

    Hi there

    I am a neonatal nurse and i know your beautiful baby will survive. Hope they are doing well x

  • By Jessica (not verified) on 9 Jul 2019 - 19:13

    I'm 20 weeks water broke today there sending me home with antibiotics said if I make it to 22 weeks then they will admit me that sound nomoral or should I go to different hospital

  • By Noreen James (not verified) on 11 Aug 2019 - 01:30

    Im.from Tobago ws consider a high risk pregnancy patient at 23 wks my water broke because they found out my cervix ws open late and try to stitch me and my water broke after the procedure,i gt the baby the wk after the friday, ws a girl, nt an once if air she ws dead being tht it ws my first i had no one to guide me along to know wt are the mishaps, which i ws told afterwards i should hv been on bed rest from beginning, well i know nw

  • By Zanele (not verified) on 5 Jul 2019 - 20:43

    Yes your baby has a greater chance of surviving
    I wish i was able to reach atleast 26 weeks
    Had contractions at 23 weeks and i was leaking
    They tried to stop the contractions and the water from coming out. Got discharged after a week but went back the following day. The minute i got admitted my water broke. I was carrying twins. They were still trying to stop the contractions but on the third day i the contractions were very bad nd i miscarried by 2 girls. This was my first pregnancy. So you’re at a greater chance of surviving

  • By Wanda (not verified) on 11 May 2019 - 19:34

    My waters broke 5 days ago I’m currently 34 weeks 4 days and I was kept in hospital for three days monitoring baby and myself for any infections and changes to baby I was given two steroid shots and antibiotics to keep any nasty infections away, I am now at home on antibiotics and daily trips to the hospital to check baby’s fluid levels and CTG scans. Booked in for two weeks time for c-section. I’m praying all is going to continue to be okay.

  • By Megan (not verified) on 29 Apr 2019 - 11:39

    Hi, I had PPROM at 30 weeks and delivered my daughter at 31 weeks. She is now 17 months old and very happy & healthy. We are thinking about trying for another baby soon and I'm curious about whether anyone has carried to full term in subsequent pregnancies after experiencing PPROM in an earlier pregnancy.

    Thank you

  • By Saki (not verified) on 16 May 2019 - 05:55

    Yeah my first pregnancy was early too due to Cholestasis. I delivered at week 37. now I am 34weeks and so far no issues. My older son was born healthy and just turn 2 he is good and healthy. I was so scared that I will get Cholestasis again but so far so good. Good luck!

  • By Samantha (not verified) on 14 Jul 2019 - 02:17

    Hi, I saw your question and figured I could let you know my story. So I had my son the day my water broke due to PPROM, at 31 weeks. He stayed in the NICU for 30 days exactly. He is now a healthy, smart, 7 year old, heading to 2nd grade. Now when my son was 2 and a half, I got pregnant with my daughter. I was to get hormone shots every week, to prevent my cervix from dilating too soon. I had her at 35 weeks. She will now be turning 5. I hope this helps.

  • By Tiffany (not verified) on 28 Apr 2019 - 08:13

    Hello! I am currently going through the same thing. I'm having twins and twin A ruptured about 5 days ago. I'm still leaking fluid, although the amount seems like it changes daily. I've been putting my faith in the Lord and just hoping for the best possible outcome from this. They told me to go about my normal activities "and if it's going to happen it will". I wasn't comfortable with that, so we decided that I was going to rest as much as possible. I'm drinking a lot of water and currently praying for the best! I still feel my little ones kicking and moving frequently! Twin B appeared to be doing great- Twin A is my little guy, and I'm trying to do everything I can for him. I'll be keeping all of you in my thoughts and prayers as well!

  • By Sonya Martinez (not verified) on 18 May 2019 - 02:55

    What ever happened with your twins?

  • By Tiffany (not verified) on 4 Jun 2019 - 11:53

    I'm in the hospital currently at 26 weeks and 3 days. As of yesterday I started having blood in the amniotic fluid too. I'm currently being monitored to see if it progresses or changes. I was admitted at 23 weeks. Honestly. I'm still terrified for my twins, but am keeping my faith, I just keep praying.

  • By Hope (not verified) on 30 May 2019 - 19:34

    God will see us through. Me too is having the same problem with me twins. So how far are you in now. And how are you doing .

  • By Tiffany (not verified) on 4 Jun 2019 - 12:00

    I'm 26 weeks and 3 days today. I recently started to have blood in the amniotic fluid as well, that began yesterday evening and hasn't seemed to slow down yet. I'm in the hospital being monitored and continuing to pray for the best. I'm nervous for the twins, but know the Lord will see me through. How are your twins?

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